In piggery, we have different pens where pigs are kept
- Farrowing pen : This is a pen where the sows give birth.
- Servicing Pen : This is a pen where the boar service the sow.
- Isolation or Medication Pen : This is a pen where unhealthy animals are treated before they can join other animals.
Pens generally have four equipment,
- Feeders : This is an enclosure where feeds are given to the pigs.
- Wallow : This is a place where the animals cool their body temperature and they also drink water.
- Farrowing Crates : This is used in farrowing pen. It is used to carry piglets for treatment.
- Guard rails : It is located at the corner of the pen. The essence of this guard rail is to hang the sows so that will not lie on the piglet.
For research purpose, cross breeding of different breeds of animal is best. For example, durock and large white can be crossed.
For commercial purpose, farmers have to use inbreeding.
Signs of Heat period
- Mucous discharge from the vulva
- Reddish of the vulva
- Grunting Noise
- Climbing wall into pen.
Note: Gestation period in pigs is 3 months, 3 weeks, 3 days – 114-117 days
Routine Practices in Pig pens
- Pack the excreta separately with shovel and parker
- Wash the floor of the pen and scrub with broom
- Drain out to keep the pen clean
- Bail out the water from the wallows
- Replace the water bailed out with fresh water in the wallow
- Serve them feeds
For local feeds, the component that make up feed gotten from household roughages could be fairly riped pawpaw, cashew and PKC can be mixed with it and give them in the morning.
There are two types of feeds
- Commercial feed i.e(Concentrate)
- Formulated feed (Roughages)
Note: Take sow to boar for mating. After servicing for 2-3 times, you remove the sow.
Heat period last for 3 days.
After weaning, don’t service at the first heat period because the respiratory system of ovulation have not settled, meaning that the ova is not fully ready.
The best time to service is at the third heat period of the pig.
Consider the following when selecting breeding stock
Breed Characteristics : Before selection of breeding stock, the breed to be reared must be taken into consideration.
There are some breeds that do have stunted growth and have low level of prolificacy.
In pigs, large white breeds is good for commercial while for research purpose, durock proved to be very good.
Prolificacy : This depends on how often after service that this animal will produce (Farrowing)
Age: Either for research or commercial, young animals are good.
Growth rate: The one that is fast in growth should be used.
Feed efficiency: How the animal will be able to utilize the feeds and convert it into flesh within a short period.
Conformation: The animals should have good body which somebody can easily access.
Good Carcass quality: The animal should have good carcass quality, that is, less fat.
Progeny must be good: After service and the pig farrows, it must be noted and recorded as the first progeny, second, third they record must take a progeny record (How they farrow)
Good motherly ability: Ability to nurse their young piglet. Good qualities are: they should lie down very well in one side so that the piglet will be able to suck.
Note: The environment can also contribute to the behavior of certain breeds of animals.
Calm and docile Temperament : The pigs should be calm in their behavior.
Number of functioning nipples: The sow should have good functioning nipple. This is the ability of the filth to produce milk.
In a place where a sow farrow twelve piglet and it has 10 nipples, the two weak piglet should be destroyed
Freedom from disease: Avoid animals that have disease in breeding programme.