Management System of Pig Production

System of rearing animals, including pigs can be classified into two groups. The extensive method and the intensive method.

The first method is usually practised by peasants or small scale producers while the second can only be practised by Large-scale or commercial producers.


Extensive System

This can also be called the peasants or small-scale producers.

Pigs kept under this system are usually few. They roam from place to place in search for food.

In this system, native or upgraded strains of pigs are predominantly used because they are more tolerant of low quality feeds.

Also, scavenging pigs can be resistant to some parasites such as ascaris and lungworm.

The pigs are generally marketed according to the financial needs of the owner rather than with regard to their weight.

The quality of meat produced from scavenging pigs is inferior with regard to deposition of meat.

Modern breeds of pigs, or any crossbreeds survive with difficulty under this system of raising. This is because they are susceptible to environmental stress.

The feeding requirements for the modern large breeds of pigs are more exacting than those for the small local breeds used as scavengers.

The system is characterized with features such as inadequate water and food supply, poor housing, poor health care etc.

Productivity is therefore very low with low economic returns to the farmer.

Productivity of these scavenging pigs can be improved through these suggestions;

  • Attempts should be made to improve in their nutrition through the feeding of supplements such as grains and processed roots and tubers.
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These could be given twice each day-morning and evening.

Other feed materials such as household wastes, which may be left over of food, cooked yam and cassava peels can be given to the pigs.

  • Attempts should be made to confine the pigs by restricting them to a confined or fenced enclosure.

The fence could be made of planted live sticks, splitted bamboo, wire gauze etc.

The paddock should be subdivided into smaller units so that the pigs can be moved from one unit to the other after a maximum stay of two weeks intervals.

This practice minimizes the incidence of parasitic infection.

  • The construction is simple pens using locally available materials such as rough timber with thatch roof and earth floor could help to improve the productive capacity of the pens.

Productivity from the surroundings to feed the confined pigs. Water should also be regularly provided to the animals.

The use of improved sire for upgrading purposes and the provision of high protein and mineral feed supplements can bring about further improvements.

The use of first-cross exotic sow is encouraged.


The large-scale or Commercial producers

The total number of commercial pig farms in Nigeria has been on the increase since the past few decades.

Some of the modern pig farms have many pigs and are rapidly expanding, although the level of development can still be considered slow when compared with countries in Europe and America.

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The development of the pig industry in Nigeria is further encouraged with availability of industrial by-products which serve as useful feeds to pigs.

This is therefore a highly desirable development as available by-product feeds will in general, be used economically.

Inspire of the increasing specialization of the pig industry in Nigeria, the large-scale breeding of purebred lines or the use of hybrid pigs for use by the large-scale producers has not fully developed.

The governments at various levels are not doing much to make these improved breeds available to farmers.

It has therefore become necessary for the commercial pig farmers to raise most of his own breeding stick.

This he can only do successfully by providing sufficient accommodation that can take care of the different stages of operation.

Below are different methods of commercial pig production.


Intensive system

This system of pig management is usually expensive because of the high capital needed for provision of good shelter and feeds for the animals.

The pigs are housed indoor all through their lives. The buildings provided should be well ventilated.

The roof which is made of tatched or asbestos will provide a good cooling environment.

The flour should be concrete to offer resistance to their destructive nature and should not be too smooth but good enough for easy cleaning.

Pigs are fed balanced diets two or three times a day.

Adequate medication is also provided while other routine management practices are not neglected.

Such practices among others include servicing and disinfection regularly, deworming, culling of unproductive and unhealthy animals etc.

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This system is characterized with large little size, high productivity, high growth rates and low mortality.


Semi-Intensive System

The cost of producing pigs under this system is usually low and can only be successfully practiced in areas where lands are readily available.

Animals are kept in a large area which should be fenced and planted with pasture.

This should be divided into paddocks in which animals are rotated in the course of grazing.

The system could be such that only breeders are kept on pasture while both weaners and fatteners are intensively raised in buildings.

The gilts and in-pig sows could be allowed to graze with or without the boar in paddocks, which should be provided with shade, and water regularly.

An alternative practice from the above is to have both the run and house combined in one roof.

The whole unit therefore serves as a run in the day time and then a sleeping house in the night.

Feed materials are provided for the pigs which in most cases include house hold waste, such as yam and cassava peels, cut pastures, industrial by-products such as wheat offal’s, maize and palm kernel cake.

Energy supplements (e.g maize and Guinea corn), protein supplements (groundnut cake, soya bean meal etc) and micro nutrients such as vitamin/mineral premix, bone meal and salt are also provided.

The diets are sometimes well higher than the extensive system.